Complete Beginner’s Guide to Information Architecture

Timothy Greig structures the information flow of a library website.

Photo by Timothy Greig

Information architecture is an often misunderstood job title. Are they Designers? Developers? Managers? All of the above? In this article we’ll discuss what information architecture is, why it’s related to usability, and what are the common tools/programs used in information architecture.

Along the way we’ll share some of the tweeters, books, and resources we found useful for budding information architects. Even if you’re familiar with the discipline already, you can probably pick up something you’ve missed.

A Common Workplace Scenario

An information architect joined my team on a project I worked on in Atlanta. Because I was unfamiliar with the term, or at least, didn’t know the actual definition, I asked: Hey John, what does an information architect do, anyway? His response was as telling as it was vague: “You know when you go to a Bank site…and there’s something about it—the colors, the copy, the mood photography—all of those elements that go into creating a sense of security. That’s what I do. Well, most of it.” Wait. “Isn’t that the job of a graphic designer,” I thought. I didn’t want to ask the question until I had done some more research—well, here it is.

Who is an Information Architect? Back to top

I find it easiest to derive what a job entails by listening to the people who do that job. Below are some quotes from people who work as Information Architects

Jesse James Garrett says:

Information architecture encompasses a wide range of problems. But regardless of the specific context or objectives of a given information architecture project, our concern is always with creating structures to facilitate effective communication. This notion is the core of our discipline.

Jesse James Garrett

The Information Architecture Institute defines Information Architecture as:

The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability.

Information Architecture Institute

Lastly, to quote Andrew Hinton:

Flickr allows me to upload my pictures and organize them, tag them, however I see fit. There is no central authority telling me what to tag my pictures. This is partly because itʼs not going to hurt anybody if I do it ʻwrongʼ … Flickr isnʼt a mission-critical system. Itʼs a playful social platform…if you want a serious photo library, then use a system like the national archive or Corbis has, but not Flickr. Thereʼs a difference between managing information, and designing the infrastructure to let others manage it themselves.
But both approaches are architectural.

Andrew Hinton in Linkosophy

Each quote is insightful. Yet, after doing some research of my own I decided that no single quote can truly describe the job. Information architects work in a niche very close to that of the graphic designer, web designer, user-experience designer, front-end developer, and usability expert (I’ve written an article about considering all of the above as careers). Indeed, all of these occupations share a common theme: user-centered design (See Jesse James Garrett’s pdf on the related elements of User Experience). Over time, the duties of these professions have become distinct. While the graphic/web designer specializes in brilliant use of color, typography, texture, etc. to convey a message, the Information Architect looks at the architecture of the site from a more objective position. She might ask: what is the flow of users through our site? How does the software help the user catalog their information? How is that presented back to the user? Is that information helping the customer (ie: decision driving)?

To do this, the information architect must focus on a number of things: the target audience, the technologies related to the website, the data that will be presented through the website, and (hopefully) the results of early usability tests regarding the site ideas.

Evolution of the IA

Information architects are more than just designers, visionaries, or project managers. Information architects must draw inspiration for perfecting their craft from a number of different departments. Typically, they will start as designers, or working alongside designers. At some level, the technical requirements of a sites design enter into their realm of interest and responsibility as well. The best IAs work with multiple departments, holding together a unified vision of what the site will entail. Think of them as analogous to a city planner, or even a traditional architect. They will have an overarching vision for how things will work, but they cannot specify too much without exiting their area of expertise.

Perhaps you’re in a situation similar to this, or you’re wondering if your job qualifies you to be an Information Architect. If you’re itching to reach a more comprehensive conclusion, I would suggest taking the IAI’s “Am I an IA?” Quiz.

Maintaining the Vision

To understand how an IA affects a project, you might imagine assigning a traditional architect to a building after it’s constructed. It’s a laughable proposition, and yet it happens to this day. Even after the most well-engineered buildings are constructed they are still prone to change. Stewart Brand details this fascinating aspect in his book, How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built. Again, as preposterous as it sounds, we typically place today’s Information Architects in a similar position—assigning them to web sites after some other self-imposed IA has prototyped the site. That’s because most people don’t know any better. The sooner you assign the vision of the project to a professional, the faster it will embody that vision.

With all of that said, in most projects a dedicated IA is simply not necessary. This is because an Information Architect fills roles similar– but not identical- to that of the project manager. A professional IA is only necessary if your site deals with large amounts of data, especially in an unusual way. Perhaps your site involves a new way to search for books, for example?

What does an Information Architect do? Back to top

An information architect will generally do the following activities as part of a project team:

  1. Research the audience and the Business

    IAs take on a myriad of responsibilities for the project. To learn about the project’s audiences, IAs should have access to the results of, or conduct: usability tests, card sorting exercises, stakeholder interviews, user polling, etc. The goal is to provide as much information about what factors are influencing the project as possible. Information architects need to know what people will do with your application, how people will use information provided by the application, and what mental models user’s create while using your application

  2. Analyze Data

    The IA takes knowledge gained from the discovery period to define what the site’s primary objectives are and how it will realize those goals. At this point, it’s helpful for the IA to work hand-in-hand with the designers, developers, and other members of the team with an interest in the project deliverable. By analyzing data, the IA may generate a set of user personas.

    A user persona is a representation of the goals and behavior of a real group of users. In most cases, personas are synthesized from data collected from interviews with users. They are captured in 1–2 page descriptions that include behavior patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, and environment, with a few fictional personal details to make the persona a realistic character. For each product, more than one persona is usually created, but one persona should always be the primary focus for the design.

    www.wikipedia.org

  3. Develop labeling/navigation/site structures

    Finally, an Information Architect will, in essence, architect the site. IAs will produce things such as site maps, site-flow diagrams, and wireframes to convey how the site will work from a practical perspective. Indeed, the best Information ARchitects will take all perspectives into account while creating these deliverables: business, technological, and social (user). From this point on, the IA will help make decisions about the overall direction the site gravitates towards. For example, the IA should be involved in periodically testing the site, reading the copy, and evaluating any user-testing that is occurring during development cycles.

Notable Information Architects Back to top

As Information Architecture has evolved, so has it’s practitioners. Below, I list some of the most influential Information Architects:

Donna Spencer

Donna Spencer is a freelance information architect, mentor, writer and trainer. She has 9 years experience working in-house and as a consultant doing strategic and tactical design. She has designed large intranets & websites, e-commerce & search systems, business applications, design patterns and a CMS.

Learn more about Donna Spencer

Nick Finck

Nick is a 12-year veteran of the web and considered a web craftsman by trade. His skills traverse web design, web development, user research, web analysis, information architecture, and web publishing. He is the author of numerous web design-related articles for various publications and founder and publisher of Digital Web Magazine, “The web professional’s online magazine of choice.”

Learn more at about Nick Finck

Peter Morville

Peter Morville is a writer, speaker, and consultant. He is best known for helping to create the discipline of information architecture. His bestselling books include Information Architecture for the World Wide Web and Ambient Findability. Peter’s latest book, Search Patterns, is being published by O’Reilly Media in 2010. Peter lives in Ann Arbor, Michigan with his wife, two daughters, and a dog named Knowsy.

Learn more about Peter Morville.

Jesse James Garrett

In 1995, Jesse started working on the Web — first as a writer and interface developer, then as an interface designer and information architect. In 2001, he started a company called Adaptive Path to help people solve user experience problems. Today he writes articles and speaks publicly about User-centered design and Information architecture. He has authored a book on the elements of user experience.

Learn more at about Jesse James Garrett

Louis Rosenfeld

Louis helped create the profession of information architecture, co-authoring its leading text, and was president of its best-known consulting firm for seven years. Lou co-founded the Information Architecture Institute and is a member of its Advisory Board. He is also a co-founder of the User Experience Network.

Learn more at about Louis Rosenfeld

Andrew Hinton

Andrew has been designing information systems in one way or another since 1990, and calling himself an “Information Architect” since 1999. He co-founded the Information Architecture Institute in 2002, and takes full blame for writing its Manifesto. Today, Andrew describes himself as a “‘User Experience Designer’ who specializes in IA.”

Learn more about Andrew Hinton

Related tweeters

Below you will find a collection of the most accessible tweeters in the Information Architecture community

@morville

@blueflavor

@adaptivepath

@nickf

@inkblurt

@louisrosenfeld

@maadonna

@jjg

What are the tools/programs used? Back to top

Information Architecture is more of a mental job than one based on output. For this reason it has always received more than its fair share of scrutiny. Information architects leverage experience, research, and user polling to provide sound advice as to how a site should be architected. This is the nature of their work. To convey their suggestions, however, Information Architects normally create site wireframes. These help all project stakeholders comprehend the breadth and depth of a website’s architecture, including all interactions with the user. You can learn more about website wireframes on wikipedia.org.

Microsoft Visio

Microsoft’s fore into the diagramming field, Visio is one of the youngest members of the Microsoft Office Suite. Visio is the premier communication tool amongst high-end IT and IA professionals. However, its lack of XML output and compatibility with Mac computers has been a notable frustration.

Learn more about Visio 2007

OmniGroup’s OmniGraffle

Omnigraffle is the Omnigroup’s competitor to Microsoft Visio, and boy have they done a great job. With just a few simple clicks (and some of the resources listed below) you’re on your way to handing off a site wireframe to convey your thoughts. OmniGroup says their product can do diagrams, process charts, quick page-layouts, website mockups, and more. It has support for Microsoft’s visio format, linked PDFs, and you can even wire together your diagrams with AppleScript.

Learn More about OmniGraffle

Axure’s Axure RP Pro 5

This windows product is well regarded by practicing Information Architects. Unfortunately, it produces “mess”heavy” HTML prototypes that are probably more trouble than their worth insofar as generating a working application from them. Axure describes their RP Pro 5 product as “the leading tool for rapidly creating wireframes, prototypes and specifications for applications and web sites.”

Learn More about Axure

Lovely Charts

Lovely charts is a great brand-spankin-new diagramming application by Jerome Cordiez, a User Experience Architect and founder of This is Lovely!. The offering differs fro the above solutions in a number of ways: it’s free, web-based, and super simple. While this may not be everybody’s cup of tea, the idea is brilliant and I can see this empowering many budding Information Architects as they search for the perfect communication medium.

Learn more about Lovely Charts

Related Resources Back to top

The resources listed below should help you get your feet wet with IA. From learning about how to create personas to using stencils to generate your first IA diagram, it’s all here. Click, download, and enjoy.

Omnigraffle Resources

Document Templates

Ultra-high quality templates to get you started. Includes shared layers for basic UX document needs, e.g. title page, wireframes, storyboards. Column guides and a regular grid make it easy to use and keep your layout tight.

Wireframe Stencils

Another gem from Konigi, these wireframes contain most of the elements you’ll need to specify user interfaces. This one is an absolute must have.

Creating prototypes with OmniGraffle

This brief video will show you how to link together your wireframe so that your clients can get an idea of how they will interact with the site.

Visio Resources

Designer Visio Templates

Peter Vandijck is the author of Information Architecture for Designers. He has provided numerous Visio templates for information architects to benefit from.

Wireframe Stencil

Dave Ross has provided a great set of starter templates for the Visio enthusiast

Wireframe, Sitemap, Process Flow Stencil

Nick Fink has done a great job collecting and creating stencils over the course of his work. On his website you can read his thoughts about how these stencils should be employed to create your deliverables.

Web Resources

Persona Creation Diagram

Use this diagram to create your own User Personas, and then develop your application around them.

Templates and Stencils for Visio and OmniGraffle

Garrett Dimon has put together a great set of resources for both Visio and OmniGraffle. For instance, his Page Description Diagram is useful for “planning or strategically designing pages without focusing on layout.”

The Information Architecture Institute’s Tools

The Information Architecture Institute has a plethora of varied and unique tools available, from a site-map generator to a task analysis grid.

Jesse James Garrett’s Downloadable IA Resources

Includes stencils, patterns, shape libraries, and even Powerpoint objects used to convey IA concepts.

Related Books Back to top

Miscellaneous Resources Back to top

A Brief History

More recently, the Information Architecture Institute has run a contest asking its members to creatively answer the question “What is Information Architecture?” One of the entries, embedded below, does a great job summarizing where IA came from and where its going.

explaining information architecture from Dan Klyn on Vimeo.

Conclusion

This is a generic summary of a complex field that is evolving every day. While I don’t expect this article to reflect the current state of Information Architecture in 5 years time, I do think that we could all stand to benefit from what motivates the IA in a project. In the future, I’ll more thoroughly investigate all of the methods of the IA madness. Until then, get your feet wet, download a copy of OmniGraffle, and don’t hesitate to ask questions below!

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Comments

  1. I struggled with Illustrator, OmniGraffle, Fireworks, and Visio for sitemapping. Nothing compares to MindManager from Mindjet. You might want to give it a whirl because it’s fast, easy, and feels quite natural.

    Thanks for a great post.

  2. This is a fantastic primer. We need more articles like this on the web: something to which you can refer a person who wants to get the bird’s eye view of a discipline. I like the breadth of resources given here: People, books, other tutorials, programs, libraries, etc…

    User Experience as a whole could use one of these, along with other subcategories such as Interaction Design.

  3. No wonder you’re always busy Andrew, you’re writing AAA-quality posts like this!

    Superb job, going to look into some of those book suggestions!

  4. Andrew!!! You go well out of your way to make your blog posts look amazing! Great post, given me a load of inspiration!

    Michael

  5. dave rupert March 10, 2009

    here’s a UX tip: add “http://” to your links so that they go out of site. perfection is in the details.

  6. Wow, thank you for listing me here among such highly respected IAs in the industry. I am humbled and honored.

  7. @Nick Finck: Andrew, David, and I enjoyed seeing you last year at the Atlanta Web Jam Conference! :)

  8. @dave rupert: Do you mind informing me where that link is? Sorry about that omission!

  9. @Loren Baxter: That’s the plan. We’ve got a fantastically interesting field here with plenty of information to cover. I hope to have many articles in the future that help our community understand the myriad of disciplines that go into User Experience.

  10. I want to throw something new into the IA discussion: What do you think is the difference between a Program Manager and IA from a web application or a mobile design (i.e. iPhone App or Web App) perspective?

  11. An interesting read, but some comments occur to me:

    1) You start your article making out that an Information Architect (IA) is a very implementation independant job, but keep referring to them building sites. I get the impression you’re a web designer imagining or researching how an IA title would fit into your job? I think the article would read better if it were written from a more abstract point of view, giving examples such as how it would apply to website, software, or anything other architectural design.

    2) I think pure IAs are probably extremely rare. I would most have at least (although probably often _only_) one specialism; Software Architect for example. I’m a Computer Systems Engineer by trade and would consider information architecture one of the important parts of that job. It sounds to me like you’re describing what I think of as a systems engineer – someone who’s able to look at a system or a problem (a website, software application, a business etc.) and break it down into constituant parts for analysis to identify some way of solving a problem or improving an existing system.

    …and a couple of typo’s / changes you might want to fix:

    1) “…A professional IA is only necessary is your site deals with large amounts of data, especially in an unusual way…” : ‘is’ -> ‘if’ ?

    2) “…Omnigraffle is the Omnigroup’s competitort to Microsoft Visio, and boy have they done a great job…” : ‘competitort’ -> ‘competitor’ ?

    3) The link’s mentioned above are the ones aimed at ‘www.iainstitute.org’.

    I hope this doesn’t sound like a negative post? It’s supposed to be constructive criticism and to get some points clear in my mind (I’m not sure I really understand IA?)…

    Thanks for sharing,
    Jon :-)

  12. @Jon Cage: Thanks for pointing out those typos, John. Seems I can edit an article five times over and I’ll still miss one or two!

  13. @Jon Cage: Thanks for the help. I am sure in need of some objectivity. I am indeed a web designer/developer by trade, and I made this article while learning about the profession. I will make an effort to secure an interview with an actual information architect to see if they can clarify some of the points made in the article and perhaps provide us insight into their day-to-day job duties.

  14. Thanks for the great article.

    I liken information architecture to the job of an architect laying out the plan of a large library. Requirements would include deciding on how much room each area requires, where the reference desk goes, where the checkout desk goes, pathways through the library, places to sit and relax, and wayfinding tools like signs and maps. The more input the original architect has in those matters, the easier it will be for visitors using the library. It’s very few buildings or businesses though that really require that attention to detail and I think likewise, very few websites would really require a full-on information architect.

  15. More free Visio IA templates at http://www.zefamedia.com/websites/free-ux-templates/ – personas, sitemap and wireframes – plus example deliverables

  16. Michael March 11, 2009

    while this website provides a lot of insightful articles on usability and user experience, i find it annoying that the fonts used on this website is bold.

    doesn’t anyone feel uneasy when reading a website full of bold text?

  17. Great primer however I have 2 comments:
    1) Noticibly abesent from the Notable IA’s list is Peter Morville – a man that IA’s consider the godfather of our craft. You cite 2 of his books but leave him off the list.
    2) Also in the books section I would have included Dan Brown’s “Communicating Design” which contains some of the best examples of IA documentation available.

    Otherwise, a very good post.

  18. @Michael: What browser are you using? All of our fonts should not be bold, only small portions for emphasis. Maybe send us a screen shot and some details through our contact page. Thanks for the feedback!

  19. Brand new reader here, courtesy of delicious popular. I think this is a great primer for those who have heard the term in passing but haven’t been able to take the time to investigate it further!
    @Jon Cage, Andrew Maier: I’m going to go out on a limb here and suggest that, more than ever before, our job descriptions have become living documents. Tasks that might have been dedicated to another person are now being rolled into our line of work, with employers seeking more out of us. And while we may not be able to provide the level of expertise that someone specialized in IA could provide, it’s become practically a necessity for us to have a solid foundation in this area. Or maybe that’s just MY job …

    Keep up the good work – I think I’ll hit up that RSS and see where UX Booth goes.

  20. Great post. I really enjoyed it. I was working as IA for half year and it was very difficult to explain what am I doing, with this article is much easier.

    Also great online resources.

    To books I would add “Observing User Experience” by Kuniavsky.

    One question,
    what software can I use to create charts in Debian/Ubuntu? Once I used to use Axure but it was under Win, its impossible to run it under wine. Now I make charts with pencil :|, Glade and Gazpracho are not useful as Axure.

    Thanks for help in advance.

  21. Great summary and description. Congratulations!

  22. I don’t agree that “A professional IA is only necessary if your site deals with large amounts of data, especially in an unusual way.” Large amounts of data should have no bearing on whether or not you want to make your software usable. If you’re constructing an interface, the end product must be user-friendly, regardless. You have to know that every UI has a specific target audience, hence the need for IA work (or more descriptive, user-centered design). I just think the term, Information Architecture, itself is rather vague, but when you think of it as User-Centered Design, I believe the process is very necessary.

  23. Brilliant article, thanks!

  24. Great article – I often experience “problems” explaining to friends what I do as an IA. This could really help :-)

  25. This is a wonderful summary of an often mis-understood, or at least overlooked discipline.

    However, one factor missing is the relevance of IA to SEO (search engine optimisation/optimization). Correct site structure enhances usability from a search engine’s point of you, as well as the users’. SEO and IA are inextricably linked and the mutual benefits are enormous.

  26. i always refer to the IA role as the Velcro that holds the clients and the development team together. In my experience the IA has to help the client understand the reasons that decisions are being made and then ensure that the development team follow this. They are fundamental to the success of any project and are unfortunately overlooked and unappreciated by many agencies.

  27. You guys are crazy! this is beyond awesome! Thanks for the hard work. I have the feeling though that at the moment not only information architects play an important role, also the ideas of industrial design and product design find their way more and more to the web. Maybe for a next post? :)

  28. Thanks for this great post.

    You have discussed pretty much everything about this subject.

    Hope we get more related post from you in the future

  29. Nice overview indeed!

    Typo alert: you have JJG listed as “Jessie” instead of “Jesse” several places in the page.

  30. vaxorcist March 20, 2009

    I have a good friend who’s an information architect at a pretty major web shop.

    She told me that 90% of her job is to keep people maintaining focus, as many of her clients have ADHD tendencies and like to think her job is to make sense of a pile of randomness. Her favorite phrase is “That’s a good idea, but probably for another future project, let’s talk about that next week”

    She said much of her job is to ask: What’s the business objective, what’s the target audience, by this idea/design/wireframe/feature are we going towards or away from our business objective and our target audience?

    The tool recommendations are cool, as are the links to famous IA’s….

    I always look for pointers to the essence of something, not to an bunch of information about something… maybe that’s an IA tendency in my mind…

  31. Great list! Nicely done, all the resources in one place. I use Axure and I know there are many widgeted wireframes available to download, so you can add them here. One is called Axure Design Pattern Library v2.0

  32. Great type of article. Never read such a compact introduction into ia before. Just for future tool lists … I work with balsamiq mockups http://www.balsamiq.com/ now for about 4 month and never saw such a great tool for wireframes before.

  33. Hey, thank you very much for the link, and the mention. This is a great post — I like how you’ve combined a number of different facets rather than trying to distill it down to a “definition.” I’m surprised to be listed with these folks :-) They’re much more awesome!

    You’ve already gotten a couple of comments about the role vs job thing — and it is a sticking point these days. A number of the people you mention wouldn’t describe themselves as “An IA” (at least not anymore). But IA is still an important part of their work, as most would acknowledge.

    I tried teasing this out in the Linkosophy deck you linked to (thanks!), and also have a separate post on my blog about it here.
    http://www.inkblurt.com/2008/05/07/a-model-for-understanding-professional-identity-and-practice/

    Keep up the terrific work on this site.

  34. Great article! Thanks for sharing.

  35. Nice summary.
    I really like the approach that you mention all the necessary ingredients to form our profession!

  36. seagoo July 2, 2009

    @Marianna Samara: @Juan: @Andrew Hinton: a nice article!

  37. Hannah Swain July 16, 2009

    Excellent article! Thanks for pulling all of this information together in such a clean, nicely balanced reservoir of information, it’s very much appreciated. I’ll definitely be saving this and referring to it often.

  38. Very valued information indeed! what I thought about information architects (rather understood till date) has been changed to a great extent.Great article.

  39. Now we know what their job is! But a really upfront one.Their role is as important as the ones who program the sites.Isn’t it?

  40. Specialized jobs are not for everyone to understand,They work to provide the objectives for which they came into existence.Big sites do require such services and businesses which take their net presence as importantly as their physical presence can benefit a great deal from this.

  41. People like me who are end users could never make out what all goes into making internet usable (informative,extensive,simple) to the person who only knows what a “click” on a link on the site could lead to.
    Definately such people, though not on the foreground bring into existence what is called the “transformers” of this new and exciting experience called internet.I really appreciate you guys.

  42. Great Artical. I have a feeling that this title will start showing up on a lot of resumes. Keep up that great work.

  43. Great article, keep up the good work!

  44. Thanks for that great post!

  45. Great article and some very interesting comments to follow. The whole IA subject is often misunderstood and in my opinion is an area that needs more exposure.

  46. Tactical systems in Microsoft Visio toolbox is a great software for IT Professionals manage to help execute a broad range of tasks that are critical to the success of their enterprises. Real-time data that turns complicated ideas, text and tables into easy-to-understand visuals that communicate information at a glance

  47. Maria Zarabia April 19, 2010

    Hmmm.. interesting thoughts and ideas you’ve shared. Please keep on sharing! I’ll be back to see and read some of your post soon. :)

  48. IA is not something unknown to me anymore thanks to this article. Thnaks!

  49. Great read, the article helped me alot. Thanks

  50. vitoli May 21, 2010

    it was a getting started help for me. i had hazy kinda of idea about IA until i received a job mail for IA profile! am a technical writer by profession:)
    Thanks for the great information.

  51. Yes great article posted as well as too much valuable for them who is new learner about architecture. there is lots indeed information….

  52. Great post, we hire specialist IA’s for every project, they play a massive role in the production of quality websites.

  53. Thought this was such a great intro to IA for those trying to get to grips with it. I actually got my content team, designers and developers to read this article cause i thought it was explained extemely well and gives a good intro for those new to it

  54. it was a great piece of article, and really it was a new piece of information for me. but i have a question, can you tell me what is the major difference between an information architect and a software quality assurance professional? aftr reading this article, i think more or less, the IAs are working on improving the quality of the website/system, etc..need some explanation

  55. I loved the part about hiring an architect after building the building. That’s a perfect analogy.

    I did not like the opening statements from the three characters, they are all trying to be too clever. We are Architects of Information systems, it’s really that simple – as the name says Information Architects.

    Great page really enjoyed it.

  56. I always admired Information Architect. They are so great, honestly I want to be Information architect but I think its hard, still I want to dream and be like an IA person.

  57. Do you need to go to school and study for years to become a Information Architect? or You must learn it on your own and be a self proclaim Information architect? This is not a familiar job, title or whatever it called.

  58. I have been absent for a while, but now I remember why I used to love this website. Thanks, I will try and check back more often. How frequently you update your web site?

  59. Great Article, thanks!
    I wrote a short article where I make an analogy between the IA-Sitemap relationship and the Genotype-Phenotype distinction.

    http://aaronrikower.com/blog/2011/06/ia-and-site-maps/

    Hope you enjoy it!

  60. Isnt an Information architect just a fancy word for Data Analyst?

  61. Matthew Steffanie February 3, 2012

    Great article and great information! Thanks!

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